X-ray phase contrast imaging at MAMI
Institut für Kernphysik, Universität Mainz, D-55099, Mainz, Germany
Accepted: 5 June 2006
Published online: 6 June 2006
Experiments have been performed to explore the potential of the low emittance 855MeV electron beam of the Mainz Microtron MAMI for imaging with coherent X-rays. Transition radiation from a micro-focused electron beam traversing a foil stack served as X-ray source with good transverse coherence. Refraction contrast radiographs of low absorbing materials, in particular polymer strings with diameters between 30 and 450μm, were taken with a polychromatic transition radiation X-ray source with a spectral distribution in the energy range between 8 and about 40keV. The electron beam spot size had standard deviation σh = (8.6±0.1)μm in the horizontal and σv = (7.5±0.1)μm in the vertical direction. X-ray films were used as detectors. The source-to-detector distance amounted to 11.4m. The objects were placed in a distance of up to 6m from the X-ray film. Holograms of strings were taken with a beam spot size σv = (0.50±0.05)μm in vertical direction, and a monochromatic X-ray beam of 6keV energy. A good longitudinal coherence has been obtained by the (111) reflection of a flat silicon single crystal in Bragg geometry. It has been demonstrated that a direct exposure CCD chip with a pixel size of 13×13μm^2 provides a highly efficient on-line detector. Contrast images can easily be generated with a complete elimination of all parasitic background. The on-line capability allows a minimization of the beam spot size by observing the smallest visible interference fringe spacings or the number of visible fringes. It has been demonstrated that X-ray films are also very useful detectors. The main advantage in comparison with the direct exposure CCD chip is the resolution. For the Structurix D3 (Agfa) X-ray film the standard deviation of the resolution was measured to be σf = (1.2±0.4)μm, which is about a factor of 6 better than for the direct exposure CCD chip. With the small effective X-ray spot size in vertical direction of σv = (1.2±0.3)μm and a geometrical magnification of up to 7.4 high-quality holograms of tiny transparent strings were taken in which the holographic information is contained in up to 18 interference fringes.
PACS: 87.59.Bh X-ray radiography – / 52.59.Px Hard X-ray sources – / 41.50.+h X-ray beams and X-ray optics – / 07.85.Fv X- and gamma-ray sources, mirrors, gratings, and detectors – / 07.85.Nc X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers –
© Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag, 2006