Experimental effects of dynamics and thermodynamics in nuclear reactions on the symmetry energy as seen by the CHIMERA 4 detector
INFN, Sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123, Catania, Italy
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Revised: 7 October 2013
Accepted: 10 October 2013
Published online: 26 February 2014
Heavy-ion collisions have been widely used in the last decade to constrain the parameterizations of the symmetry energy term of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) for asymmetric nuclear matter as a function of baryonic density. In the Fermi energy domain one is faced with variations of the density within a narrow range of values around the saturation density fm-3 down towards sub-saturation densities. The experimental observables which are sensitive to the symmetry energy are constructed starting from the detected light particles, clusters and heavy fragments that, in heavy-ion collisions, are generally produced by different emission mechanisms at different stages and time scales of the reaction. In this review the effects of dynamics and thermodynamics on the symmetry energy in nuclear reactions are discussed and characterized using an overview of the data taken so far with the CHIMERA multi detector array.
© SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2014