Flavor-diagonal CP violation: the electric dipole moment
Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Physics Department, Michigan State University, 48824, East Lansing, MI, USA
Accepted: 7 March 2021
Published online: 12 April 2021
The observed baryon asymmetry in the universe cannot be reconciled with the current form of the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. The Standard Model breaks charge conjugation parity (CP) symmetry, but not in a sufficient amount to explain the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry. Historically one of the first systems to be studied in the search of symmetry breaking within the Standard Model is the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron. The contribution to the neutron EDM coming from the SM is several order of magnitudes smaller than the current experimental bound, thus providing a unique, background-free window for potential discovery of physics Beyond the Standard Model (BSM). The strong CP-violating term can also contribute to the neutron EDM, as can all the CP-violating effective operators describing, at energies below the electro-weak scale, the contributions from BSM. To constrain all these contributions to the neutron EDM we need to precisely determine the hadronic matrix elements of the corresponding renormalized operators. After a brief introduction on baryon asymmetry and baryogenesis, I summarize the current stuatus for experiments in search of a neutron EDM. I then describe in more details the different CP-violating sources, and some results in Chiral Perturbation Theory precede a discussion on the current status of Lattice QCD calculations. I will in particular focus on the 2 main challenges for these type of calculations: the signal-to-noise ratio and the renormalization. I will discuss several improvement techniques trying to improve these two aspects of the calculation and I will conclude with an optimistic view into the future.
© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2021