Regular Article - Theoretical Physics
Fluctuations and correlations of net baryon number, electric charge and strangeness in a background magnetic field
Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, 430079, Wuhan, China
2 Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 730000, Lanzhou, China
Accepted: 8 June 2021
Published online: 24 June 2021
We present results on the second-order fluctuations of and correlations among net baryon number, electric charge and strangeness in (2 + 1)-flavor lattice QCD in the presence of a background magnetic field. Simulations are performed using the tree-level improved gauge action and the highly improved staggered quark (HISQ) action with a fixed scale approach ( 0.117 fm). The light quark mass is set to be 1/10 of the physical strange quark mass and the corresponding pion mass is about 220 MeV at vanishing magnetic field. Simulations are performed on lattices with 9 values of varying from 96 to 6 corresponding to temperatures ranging from zero up to 281 MeV. The magnetic field strength eB is simulated with 15 different values up to 2.5 GeV at each nonzero temperature. We find that quadratic fluctuations and correlations do not show any singular behavior at zero temperature in the current window of eB while they develop peaked structures at nonzero temperatures as eB grows. By comparing the electric charge-related fluctuations and correlations with hadron resonance gas model calculations and ideal gas limits we find that the changes in degrees of freedom start at lower temperatures in stronger magnetic fields. Significant effects induced by magnetic fields on the isospin symmetry and ratios of net baryon number and baryon-strangeness correlation to strangeness fluctuation are observed, which could be useful for probing the existence of a magnetic field in heavy-ion collision experiments.
© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2021. corrected publication 2021