Regular Article - Theoretical Physics
Triple high energy nuclear and hadron collisions - a new method to study QCD phase diagram at high baryonic densities
Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Max Born Pl. 9, 50-204, Wrocław, Poland
2 Department of Physics, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 03022, Kyiv, Ukraine
3 University of Oslo, POB 1048, Blindern, 0316, Oslo, Norway
4 Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Prospekt Nauki av. 47, 03680, Kyiv, Ukraine
5 Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Metrologichna str. 14–B, 03680, Kyiv, Ukraine
6 National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), Kashirskoe Shosse 31, 115409, Moscow, Russia
7 Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Science, 108840, Moscow, Russia
8 Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
9 Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, 119899, Moscow, Russia
Accepted: 15 July 2022
Published online: 5 September 2022
We propose an entirely new method to study the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter by means of scattering the two colliding beams at the fixed target. Here we present the results of simulations of the most central triple nuclear collisions with the UrQMD 3.4 model for the beam center-of-mass collision energies and . The main outcome of our modeling is that even at these very high collision energies the initial baryonic charge densities are about 3 times higher than the ones achieved in the ordinary binary nuclear collisions. As a result, for instance, the yields of protons and -hyperons are strongly enhanced in the triple nuclear collisions. The other prospective applications of this method are briefly discussed. Among them we consider the low energy collisions of three nuclei of lead, passing through an intermediate system with an electric charge of 246 units which exceeds essentially the critical value of 173 and, hence, this may be of crucial importance to study the spontaneous emission of positron-electron pairs from the vacuum. We present the convincing arguments that the triple nuclear collisions method will allow the high energy nuclear physics community to create a new frontier in the studies of the QCD phase diagram and to lift up these studies to an entirely new level.
© The Author(s) 2022. corrected publication 2022
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