Status and developments of target production for research on heavy and superheavy nuclei and elements
GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291, Darmstadt, Germany
2 Department Chemie - Standort TRIGA, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, 55128, Mainz, Germany
3 Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Staudingerweg 18, 55128, Mainz, Germany
Accepted: 18 December 2022
Published online: 2 February 2023
We give an overview of the special challenges regarding target development and production for accelerator-based heavy and superheavy-nuclei experiments in the past and perspectives for the future. Production of ever heavier elements, studies of heavy-element production in fusion or transfer reactions, spectroscopic investigations on their nuclear structure and decay and on the fission processes with fragment analyses, laser spectroscopic studies of their atomic structure, high-precision mass measurements as well as chemical studies are lively fields of current science. The ever-increasing beam intensities, feasible with new accelerator development, are crucial for the synthesis of superheavy elements because of the low cross sections for many of the reactions. Therefore, the development of target and backing materials with higher durability and experiment lifetime is increasingly important. Here we concentrate on the techniques necessary for the production of targets that are needed for experiments in this special field of interest. For the future, also development on target monitoring, target cooling, and beam intensity profile shaping techniques will play an important role, but are not in the focus of this article.
© The Author(s) 2023
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.