Regular Article - Theoretical Physics
Non-equilibrium cumulants within model A from crossover to first-order phase transition side
Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University, 710127, Xi’an, China
2 College of Physics and Communication Electronics, Jiangxi Normal University, 330022, Nanchang, China
Accepted: 8 February 2023
Published online: 21 February 2023
We study the non-equilibrium cumulants of the chiral order parameter field ( field) in different phase transition scenarios via Langevin dynamics. Cumulants up to fourth-order have been calculated based on the spacetime-dependent configurations from the event-by-event numerical simulations. By limiting the cooling of the system in a Hubble-like way, the out-of-equilibrium cumulants illustrate clear memory effects during the evolution. Both the signs and the magnitudes of the high-order cumulants differ from the equilibrium ones below the phase transition temperature. Especially, the dynamical cumulants grow more intensively from the first-order phase transition side than they do from the crossover side. In addition, analysis of the high-order off-equilibrium cumulants on the hypothetical freeze-out lines present non-monotonic curves in the large chemical potential region.
© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2023. Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.